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Research (Baseline & Fact Finding Mission)

HAKIARDHI knowledge bank on land matters comes out of studies like strategic researches, fact-finding missions and baseline surveys. The main purpose of the research is to collect, analyse and widely disseminate reliable, concrete and up to date information on land that can help to inform policy processes and for public consumption. Some of the researches done by the Institute in previous time include but is not limited to the following;  


  • The Maasai Rights in Ngorongoro Conservation Area

This study took place between 1997 and 1998 concerning the Maasai rights of the Ngorongoro conservation area. The study findings helped to shed light on several problems facing other pastoralists groups outside Ngorongoro. They were also used to publish advocacy materials like books, handbags and fliers to influence changes in the policy regime in favour of pastoralists in the country.


  • The implications of land alienation and scarcity in Kilosa and Hanang districts

The study was conducted between 2003 and 2004, it revealed that most land problems in those districts (such as land conflicts, food insecurity, land grabbing) were attributed to land scarcity due to land alienation from communities done by the government between the 1970’s and 1980s. The findings and recommendations formed the basis of the land rights and conflict management training programmes in those districts for the period 2003-2006. The findings also were used to prepare training manuals and other user-friendly publications that have been widely disseminated to other areas outside the two districts. 


  •  The Sonjo versus Maasai land Conflicts in Loliondo

HAKIARDHI conducted a fact-finding study in Ngorongoro district in 2005 to inquire into the long-standing land conflicts between Sonjo and Maasai in the Sale and Loliondo divisions of the district. This study revealed that, apart from the traditional enmity between the two sides, there is competition over land and water resources that are linked to governance problems especially concerning the demarcation of village boundaries, equitable access to power centres and allocation of public resources. The study recommendations led to the formation of joint initiatives for conflict management in the district which have helped to reduce the fights, human and livestock deaths as well as the destruction of properties which were the order of the day.


  •  The status and benefits of bioresources for grassroots communities in Tanzania

This study took place from 2006 to 2007 regarding the status and benefits of bioresources to resident communities in bio resources-rich areas. Among other findings, the study revealed massive plunder, piracy and expropriation of bioresources in the country due to weaknesses in the legal regime and general lack of public awareness on the importance of such resources.  The typical cases of plunder and piracy in coastal marine resources, Eastern Arc forests of Tanga, Morogoro and Coast regions, as per the study recommendations, could be well countered with a strong legal framework and a well-informed public for both oversight role and accountability enforcement. Broad-based public awareness-raising initiatives on this sector were born out of this study’s recommendations.  


  • The consequences and plight of evicted pastoralists from Usangu basin

In 2007, HAKIARDHI conducted a fact-finding mission to inquire into the consequences of the operation to evict pastoralists from Usangu (Mbarali district) to Lindi, Morogoro and Coastal regions. The study revealed gross violations of land and human rights including the destruction of properties, loss of livestock and livelihoods during the eviction exercise and called upon the government to take stern measures against culprits. HAKIARDHI used the findings to campaign for compensation of evicted pastoralists. In response, the government formed a Presidential Commission of Inquiry into the matter which helped to stop the evictions elsewhere and submitted recommendations that are being worked upon by the president’s office.


  •  Land rights and governance challenges in Tanzania: Lessons from Rufiji, Kilombero and Kisarawe districts

This was a baseline study done in the two districts in 2007 to among other things, establish the extent to which land problems are linked with and can be solved through governance within the context of the local government framework and reforms. The findings and recommendations of this study have helped local communities in the three districts to respond to the forces of investment on biofuels whose demand for land from the three districts was quite immense. The training has helped to strengthen local governance institutions like Village Assemblies, Village Councils and land conflict resolution councils in 50 villages of the three districts. 


  • The price of conservation to pastoral communities

A study about the price of conservation amid pastoralists’ livelihoods claims was conducted in early 2008 in Burunge Wildlife Management Area. The findings and recommendations of this study have been one of the contributions in the ongoing debates about the plight of pastoralism in the context of the growing conservation and tourism interest in Tanzania.


  • Biofuels in Tanzania: A critical assessment of its linkage with food security, livelihood and energy needs.

The study has been carried out in 2008 to explore the challenges and opportunities of the Agrofuels industry in Tanzania concerning the land rights and sustainable livelihoods of the rural-based communities. Through this study, LARRRI has managed to mobilize and raise the voices of the public in dialoguing and shaping the nature of national guidelines on biofuels that will govern and lay down procedures and regulatory frameworks for biofuels business in Tanzania.